CURRENT ISSUES RELEVANT TO THE AUSTRALIAN SEAFOOD INDUSTRY
Below are a list of issues currently under discussion at Codex that are relevant to the Australian Seafood Industry. SafeFish welcomes any technical advice, comments or input around these issues. A comprehensive report that contains more detailed information on these issues is compiled by SafeFish every quarter, to access the most recent report please click here.
Methylmercury – Proposal under consideration to significantly reduce maximum level in fish
The CCCF have been discussing methylmercury limits since 1992. In 2013 CCCF agreed that consumer advice should not be developed at the international level and that such guidance was more appropriate at the national level. There is a growing consensus from the international community to convert these Guideline Levels into a Maximum Limits. In 2016 CCCF agreed to establish a ML for tuna, but work needed to be undertaken to determine whether it was possible to establish a single ML for tuna or whether different MLs should be set for different species of tuna, and whether it was possible and appropriate to set MLs for canned tuna. There is also some interest in establishing MLs for other fish species which contain high mercury content.
Histamine – New histamine control guidance and consideration of reduced maximum level
Scombrotoxin fish poisoning (SFP) is a common cause of fish poisoning that occurs in humans. Histamine formation can be effectively controlled by using good manufacturing practices to maintain hygienic quality of fish, and by using HACCP systems to control fish time and temperature exposure. CCFH have prepared a draft revision of the Code of Practice for Fish and Fishery Products to include a new section to help prevent SFP. This will identify what actions should be undertaken, and includes the need to measure temperature and maintain the history of temperature and time records throughout the supply chain. These draft revisions will be applicable to marine finfish and their products that have the potential to develop hazardous levels of histamine and includes tuna, mackerel, anchovies, sardines, kingfish, Australian salmon, Mahi Mahi and Escolar. The current Codex health-based safety limit for histamine in fish from Clupeidae, Scombridae, Scombresocidae, Pomatomidae and Coryphaenedae families is 200 mg/kg. Discussion are also occurring on potentially reducing this level and revision of sampling plans.
Ciguatoxins – New standard under consideration
CCCF are considering making a request to FAO/WHO for scientific advice to support either the future establishment of ML for C-CTX-1 and P-CTX-1 and/or the development of risk management guidelines.
Alignment of Food Additives – Notification of changes to a variety of seafood products
Food additives in 10 frozen seafood commodity standards and for canned shrimp and prawns are to be aligned to the General Standard for Food Additives (CODEX STAN 192-1995). The list of approved food additives and maximum permitted level within the individual commodity standards (above) will be replaced with reference to permissions listed within the General Standard for Food Additives (CODEX STAN 192-1995). The alignment will mean that any additive that is not permitted in the GSFA will also not be allowed to be used in the relevant commodity standards.
Non Dioxin-like PCBs – Revision to cover non dioxin-like PCBs in food and feed
In 2015 the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) assessed the toxicity of non dioxin-like PCBs and concluded that based on the available data non dioxin-like PCBs are unlikely to be a health concern for adults and children, but for breastfed infants the safety margin would be expected to be lower. It remains important that efforts are undertaken to reduce or prevent human exposure to non dioxin-like-PCBs. In 2015 CCCF agreed to review the Code of Practice for the Prevention and Reduction of Dioxin and Dioxin-like PCB Contamination in Food and Feeds (CAC/RCP 62-2006) to evaluate if non dioxin-like PCBs could be included. CCCF have recommended that non dioxin-like PBCs be include in the Code of Practice. The practices to reduce the presence of dioxin-like PCBs are also applicable to non dioxin-like PCBs, i.e. there should be no significant change to the current Code.
Fish Oils – New standard for fish oil, maximum level for arsenic and lead under consideration
CCFO have developed a draft Standard for Fish Oils and in March 2017 agreed to forward the draft Standard for Fish Oils to CAC40 for adoption at Step 8. The draft Standard will apply to fish oils that are presented in a state for human consumption. Aspects of the standard will apply to crude fish oils. CCFO have requested CCCF to consider to develop maximum levels for arsenic and lead in fish oils for inclusion into the General Standard for Contaminants and Toxins in Food and Feed (CODEX STAN 193-1995).
The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has identified that there is no safe level of lead and consequently there is a need to maintain the levels of lead in food at the lowest achievable levels, in particular to protect vulnerable populations groups. The 10th session of CCCF (April 2016) agreed to establish an eWG to review the ML for lead in fish in the General Standard for Contaminants and Toxins in Food and Feed (CODEX STAN 193-1995). The eWG extracted data from the GEMS/Food database for samples collected and/or analysed between 1995 and 2016. The eWG recommended that the current ML for lead in fish of 0.3 mg/kg be maintained. This compares to the current domestic level in the FSANZ Food Standards Code of 0.5 mg/kg.